Date: January 25, 2022PDF: 4 MB
This report evaluates and compares the life cycle environmental impact of internal combustion vehicles and electric vehicles (ICEV, BEV and HEV) and the energy sources that power them, as well as the corresponding total cost of ownership that affects consumers. This report leverages findings from existing literature and research from government agencies, private corporations, and academic institutions as well as from a customized life cycle assessment model developed specifically to verify and test the findings of the report. The report was developed to inform stakeholders about the opportunities to improve the environmental performance of electric and combustion engine vehicles and bring the most cost-effective means of cleaner transportation to consumers.
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Introducing the Study
Summary of Findings
Life Cycle Analysis Comparison: Understanding the Research (PDF)